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                A Study on the Development Models and Paths of Innovation of Uranization in Ethnic Areas


                  Astract:Uranization is a natural historical process, and is an inevitale stage for the economic and social development of ethnic minority areas in China. The exploration of the development model and innovative path of uranization plays an important role in accelerating the process of modernization, transforming the mode of economic growth and achieving social staility and unity in ethnic minority areas. y descriing the current situation of the development of uranization in ethnic minority areas, this paper summarizes four contradictions found within the process of uranization. They are: 1) the contradiction etween aundant resources and a fragile ecology; 2) the contradiction etween insufficient infrastructure construction and insufficient investment; 3) the contradiction etween “rain drain” and employment difficulties; and, 4) the contradiction etween institutional ostacles and pulic interest demands. This paper sums up four types of development models concerning uranization, which are: 1) tourism industrydriven; 2) industrial developmentdriven; 3) order tradedriven; and, 4) grassland animal husandrydriven. y constructing a vision for a framework of uranization development in ethnic minority areas, and considering the reality of the development in ethnic minority areas, this paper proposes some innovative paths for uran development :
                  1. Adhere to a green, low caron principle, and promote the construction of an ecological civilization in the process of uranization
                  Firstly, we should estalish the development concept of an “ecological civilization” and integrate it into the framework for uran development. Efforts should e made to promote oth a green and lowcaron development so as to respect nature, conform to nature and protect nature, promote uranization within the scope of the natural carrying capacity, and promote the unification of uranization and ecology. Secondly, we should strengthen the construction of an ecological environmental protection system. We should formulate a red line for scientifically protecting the ecology, and delimit all important ecological corridors, wildlife protection areas, asic farmland protected areas, and wetland parks in ethnic minority areas into a wide scope for their protection and control; we should manage the socalled ecological control line meticulously, prohiit work activities or development and construction activities unrelated to ecological protection, and ensure that, according to the principle of “RequisitionCompensation alance”, the total amount of ecological land is not reduced; standardize the approval system strictly, strengthen the approval process concerning the protected areas lying within the red line and ecological control line so as to ensure prudent and rational land use in ecological areas. Thirdly, we should gradually improve the system for ecological compensation,  gradually expand the scope of compensation,  increase compensation for the protection of wetlands and water sources on the asis of what they were originally; steadily improve the compensation standards and increase the financial compensation ; and roaden the sources of compensation funds. In addition to special financial investment, we should also integrate various special funds and estalish ecological compensation funds, etc., so as to improve the efficiency of funds.   2. Strengthen the integration of production and the city, and continuously release the vitality of uranization
                  Firstly, we should strengthen the industrial support for constructing uranization, strengthen the optimization and adjustment of the industrial structure, speed up the upgrade  of agricultural modernization, new industrialization and the tourism industry ased on the reality of the ethnic minority areas, promote the level of coordination and interaction etween uranization, industrialization and agriculture (animal husandry), and promote the mutual support and integration of uran development and industry so as to form a pattern of uranization of an integration of industryagriculture, citytownship and uranrural areas. Secondly, we should uild an ecological system of industries with ethnic characteristics so as to promote uranization.  Ethnic minority areas should construct an industrial ecological system with ethnic characteristics ased on their own advantages. Especially in those uranized areas driven y the tourism industry, we should construct excellent tourist routes, construct a tourism resources network ased upon a“hu axis model” , and closely link tourist attractions and industrial elts in order to promote a coordinated development of uranization. Thirdly, we should expand industrial space and accelerate industrial agglomeration. Ethnic minority areas should make full use of existing industrial clusters and industrial chains, expand the space for industrial development, encourage the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries with new, high level technologies, enhance the core competitiveness of industries, and promote the development of industrial clusters so as to support uran construction.
                  3. Deepen system reform, and improve the quality of uran development
                  Firstly,we should deepen the reform of the household registration system in ethnic minority areas, release the restrictions of the rural migrant population from their household registration, realize a free flow of the rural population, and cancel the privileges and  advantages which are given to uran household registration; and, in doing so, lieralize fully the residence restrictions of small towns in ethnic areas, determine the household registration conditions of large cities reasonaly, and then promote efficiently the flow of agricultural population to cities and towns. Secondly, we should strengthen reform of the land system in ethnic minority areas. According to the requirement of “same land and same rights”, we should promote the equal rights of collectively owned land in rural areas and stateowned land in cities and towns, and truly lierate peasants from the land; and strengthen the land transfer system. y taking into account the reality of ethnic minority areas, we should adhere to promoting the rational transfer of land, improving the efficiency of land use, and avoiding the phenomenon of idle or aandoned land y using the guidance of the principle of “voluntary and compensation”. Thirdly, we should further perfect the social security system in ethnic minority areas. The social security in ethnic minority areas should e rought into the scope of the national social security system so as to  coordinate all the activities of the nation as in a chess game; We should implement differential treatment, improve the level of social security in rural areas, and strengthen pulic services in rural areas. Finally, we should innovate the ways and systems of investment and financing for uranization in ethnic minority areas, make efforts to set up an “uranization construction model” which is led y the government, and fully engages social capital, and private capital, and, in this way improve the level of uran infrastructure construction in ethnic minority areas, and alleviate the lack of funds.   4. Maintain cultural heritage, and constantly highlight the ethnic characteristics in the process of uranization
                  Firstly, we should protect historical and cultural heritage, transmit and carry forward these excellent ethnic cultures, strengthen the protection of natural and cultural heritage in an allround way, revitalize the level of traditional craftsmanship in an allround way, and perpetuate the high quality of historical context which emodies  ethnic cultural elements. Especially for those representations of ethnic cultural heritage and relics, we should strengthen their protection and incorporate protection measures into the overall economic and social planning so as to ensure its complete protection. Secondly, we should estalish a numer of towns with ethnic cultural characteristics. y comining the natural and cultural landscapes in ethnic minority areas, we should strive to uild one or more pastoral towns with their own ethnic characteristics, strengthen the protection of traditional villages, houses and villages with ethnic characteristics, and promote the transformation of a pattern of homogeneous uran construction to one with humanistic concern. Thirdly, we should strengthen and expand the intangile cultural industry. In the process of future uranization, we should plan and construct cultural “units” such as folk cultural parks, cultural ecological protection areas, folk arts and crafts zones, etc.; moderately develop intangile cultural heritage resources as tourism commodities, and actively uild an intangile cultural industry that integrates protection, inheritance and leisure tourism.
                  Key Words: ethnic minority areas; uranization model; running contradictions; visionary framework
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